Galliprant is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent specifically developed to safely treat pain in dogs caused by osteoarthritis.
Galliprant is a liver-flavored chewable. A prescription from a veterinarian is required before using this medication. The veterinarian's instructions for dosing should be followed exactly. However, a typical regimen is giving the prescribed dose once a day. Most dogs will consume the chewable as if it were a treat.
The medication is rapidly and efficiently absorbed from the digestive tract, reaching maximal levels within about two hours. It has a five- or six-hour half-life in the dog's body.
Although this medication is an NSAID, unlike most NSAIDs, it does not inhibit COX-1 or COX-2. It acts by blocking the binding of prostaglandins to their receptors, specifically the EP4 receptor, which results in an anti-inflammatory and pain-blocking effect. Because it does not inhibit COX-1 or COX-2, it is possibly safer than other NSAIDs, especially for long-term daily use.
However, there may still be some adverse gastrointestinal effects from this medication because EP4 does play a role in gastrointestinal function. In addition, EP4 is also found in the kidney, and there are a lot of EP4 receptors in the heart. The clinical relevance of these receptors in regards to taking this medication is unclear, and the drug has not been tested for safety in dogs with known cardiac diseases.
It was tested for efficacy in 285 dogs diagnosed with arthritis living in the community with their owners. The dogs were split into active and placebo control groups. The owners and the evaluators of the dogs were blinded to their study group. The treated dogs had significant improvements in function and pain levels. The dogs in the placebo group were crossed over to effective treatment after 28 days due to the good results seen.
Galliprant has been extensively studied for safety in dogs older than nine months of age weighing at least eight pounds. Side effects were rare and generally involved vomiting or diarrhea and a decreased appetite. It should not be used in conjunction with any other NSAID medications.
A long-term study used a very high dose of the medication given to beagles daily for nine months. The high dose caused occasional vomiting in all of the treated dogs, along with diarrhea and decreases in serum albumin and total protein levels. No other side effects were observed, and all of the parameters returned to normal after discontinuing the high-dose regimen.